Whiplash will often get better on its own or after some simple treatment in a few weeks or months.
But sometimes it can cause severe and troublesome symptoms that last a long time.
The main treatments for whiplash are outlined below.
Keep your neck mobile
It's important not to rest your neck for prolonged periods if you have whiplash.
Your neck may be painful at first, but keeping it mobile will improve its movement and speed up your recovery. Any pain you experience when moving your neck is normal and won't cause further damage.
It's best to try to carry on with your normal activities and not use a neck brace or collar. Try to avoid staying in the same position, such as sitting or lying down, for long periods.
Doing some controlled neck exercises may also help reduce stiffness. Read an NHS leaflet on whiplash (PDF, 259kb) for some simple exercises you can try.
The following measures can also help reduce your pain and aid your recovery:
- Ice packs – for the first few days, holding an ice pack (a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a towel will also work) to your neck for up to 10 minutes several times a day may help reduce pain and swelling.
- Warm compress – after a few days, holding a warm hot water bottle to your neck for up 15 minutes several times a day may be better at soothing your pain.
- Good posture – always maintain a good, upright posture by keeping your back straight while sitting, standing and walking. If you spend a lot of time using a computer, adjust your chair and computer screen correctly.
- Supportive pillow – some people find a firm, supportive pillow helps when sleeping. Avoid using more than one pillow and don't sleep on your front.
Painkillers can help relieve the pain of a whiplash injury.
Over-the-counter painkillers are usually recommended first, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. These should be used regularly rather than only when the pain is most severe.
Always read the leaflet that comes with your medication to check whether it's suitable for you. For example, ibuprofen shouldn't be taken by anyone with a history of stomach ulcers.
If one of these medicines doesn't relieve your pain, you can try taking both together. Read more about taking paracetamol and ibuprofen together.
If your neck pain is more severe, your GP can recommend a stronger painkiller, such as codeine. This can be used on its own or in combination with other painkillers.
Physiotherapy may be recommended if your symptoms continue for several weeks.
A physiotherapist may use a range of physical techniques to help improve your symptoms, such as:
- neck exercises
- gentle manipulation of your neck
You may be able to get a referral for NHS physiotherapy through your GP, or you can choose to pay for private treatment.
Read more about accessing physiotherapy.
Whiplash that lasts for six months or more is known as chronic whiplash or late whiplash syndrome.
There's little in the way of scientific evidence to suggest which treatments are most effective for long-term whiplash. Continuing with the treatments above is often recommended.
If you have long-term pain, ask your GP about a referral to a specialist NHS pain clinic for further treatment and support.
If you're struggling to cope with your symptoms, talk to your GP about medication and psychological support – such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) – that may help.